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problems in ethiopia 2020

It is unclear what a successful strategy for the federal government will be if it is able to capture Tigray’s urban centers but cannot command the widespread acceptance of Tigray’s people. By admin on July 11, 2020. P. roponents of the two dominant views on the COVID-19 induced Ethiopian constitutional crisis have now coalesced to articulate their proposed pathways on the current predicament along two main tracks.. As the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) militia and special forces learned that they are about to lose Maikadra town to the Ethiopian Defense Forces and Amhara region special forces – that rescued besieged Ethiopian Defense Forces following November 4 -, they massacred what is said to be now over 1000 unarmed civilians. Published November 22, 2020 2:00 pm . Grants & Fellowships November 23, 2020. Ethiopia’s construction of the GERD commenced within the context of the CFA. container: 'taboola-right-rail-thumbnails', An adequate response necessitates efforts at reconciliation, justice, and inclusive dialogue. These have had bearing on the children of Ethiopia. Therefore, as focused on their immediate objectives and consequently as reluctant to seek dialogue and compromise as they may be, the parties in conflict may find that a negotiated settlement may ultimately be the only realistic choice, if not imminently, then in the months ahead. Seemingly both regional governments, federal governments, and large swaths of the people galvanizing around the [federal] government.”. For successful elections to be held, credibly and non-coercively addressing both insecurity and the underlying grievances behind the violence will be essential. 2.6% of the population (mainly in the far south and southwest) follow traditional religions; other religions (the Baháʼí Faith, Judaism, etc.) However, even if Abiy’s military objectives are quickly achieved, experiences of warfare in northern Ethiopia dating back a century suggest that it is much easier to capture territory than it is to hold it. For their part, American officials have asserted that the conflict in Tigray has served to unite Ethiopians. Ethiopia has already reached the halfway mark on the 2020 target. Tuesday, November 24, 2020 Apart from a five-year occupation by Mussolini's Italy, it has never been colonised. Without much delay, discussions on the technical issues related to the dam’s construction, filling, and maintenance also started among Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt in November 2011, a few months before Hosni Mubarak’s government was overthrown in Cairo. }); © 2001 – 2020 Puntland Post. Another major problem facing Ethiopia today is the systematic marginalization and persecution of certain ethnic groups caused mainly by poor government policies. By. Ethiopia’s economy experienced strong, broad-based growth averaging 9.8% a year from 2008/09 to 2018/19, Ethiopia’s real gross domestic product (GDP) growth rebounded to 9% in 2018/19. Yet from the start of armed hostilities with the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed promised the conflict would be swift and decisive. Unfortunately, violence has continued elsewhere in Ethiopia. USIP is closely following the effects of the novel coronavirus around the world and we’re particularly concerned about its effects in fragile states and conflict zones, which are especially vulnerable to the impacts of these kinds of outbreaks. As early as December 2018, a USAID pre-elections assessment found that “there is a lack of consensus about specific solutions and timing of reforms in relation to the election cycle, and that information about and support for the reforms is inconsistent. All rights reserved. Ethiopia has close historical ties to all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions.Christians form the majority of the population. Substantial efforts are needed to reduce political tensions ahead of elections in 2021. Search for experts, projects, publications, courses, and more. Share Tweet. However, at the end of October, NEBE proposed that the elections be held in late May or June 2021, contingent on beginning poll worker training in December and voter registration in January. However, even if Abiy’s military objectives are quickly achieved, experiences of warfare in northern Ethiopia dating back a century suggest that it is much easier to capture territory than it is to hold it. In May, the NEBE proposed two scenarios on which to base a prospective electoral calendar: the first required 224 days to prepare for and conduct elections, and the second required 276 days. November 29, 2020 By Lawrence Freeman Today, the Ethiopian government Read more. By: Aly Verjee. Replay. These issues, their links to the Ethiopian economy, and their implications for economic growth, are the subject of this rapid, desk-based study. Blog, The United States Institute of Peace Legal and Privacy Information | FOIA Inquiries, Susan Stigant on Ethiopia’s Escalating Civil Conflict, What Ethiopia’s Brewing Conflict Means for the Country—and the Region, Ethiopia's Tigray Crisis: Why Nobel laureate Abiy Ahmed sent his troops to battle - BBC News, A Bold Peace Offensive To Engage North Korea - War on the Rocks, Ethiopian forces said to block refugees from entering Sudan - Associated Press, Tunisian labour union demands dialogue amid rising unemployment and unrest - The National. Despite limitations on independent reporting and the severing of most communications, the federal government has announced significant military advances, capturing a number of important towns and cities in Tigray, including Shire on November 17, Axum and Adwa on November 20, and Adigrat on November 21. Addis Ababa May 22, 2020 CDC Ethiopia has invested more than $64 million to build the capacity of Ethiopia’s laboratories and health facilities to strengthen the country’s public health infrastructure over the past two decades. 2 Dec 2020 Ethiopia and the United Nations have reached an agreement to channel desperately needed humanitarian aid to a northern region where a … Islam is the second most followed religion, with 33.9% of the population being adherents. make up the remaining 0.6%. As early as December 2018, a USAID pre-elections assessment found that “there is a lack of consensus about specific solutions and timing of reforms in relation to the election cycle, and that information about and support for the reforms is inconsistent. A number of prominent political figures and journalists were jailed before the Tigray conflict began, and more arrests of journalists have followed this month. 2 October 2020 Saudi Arabia: "This is worse than COVID-19": Ethiopians abandoned and abused in Saudi prisons Research Ethiopia. Ethiopian Monitor #Ethiopia, #Tigray, #Tplf. Citation Daley, B. ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia, March 5, 2020/APO Group/ — The U.S. Embassy in Addis Ababa launchedR. “The root cause of political problems in Ethiopia is national oppression by the Ethiopian empire state and refusal by the state to respect the rights of oppressed peoples to self-determination. The current Ethiopian regime has recognized in its constitution the right of self-determination with serious limitations imposed on the exercise of the right. Even before the conflict with Tigray, there were more than 1.8 million internally displaced persons in Ethiopia. ... "They didn't see eye to eye on some issues, so it became difficult to … Beyond the national polls, each regional state of Ethiopia is also due to hold elections for their state legislatures. The government’s military operation against leaders of the Tigray region could have devastating consequences across the Horn of Africa Last modified on Sun 8 Nov 2020 … USIP’s Aly Verjee and Susan Stigant discuss the crisis and identify what could be done to avoid further violent conflict in east Africa’s most populous country. Updated 4:00 PM ET, Sun November 22, 2020 . Assistant Secretary of State for Africa Tibor Nagy told journalists on November 19 that “it seems like [the conflict in Tigray] has brought the Ethiopian nation together, at least for the time being, in support of the prime minister …” Ambassador Raynor added that “the rest of the country actually remains quite calm at present, no indications of anyone taking up comparable actions elsewhere, and in fact the opposite. More recently, NEBE has noted that the possibility of constitutional and electoral reform could also complicate the electoral calendar and has warned, “Preparations for electoral process based on [an] unstable timeline are not advisable. The EU has provided Ethiopia with €815 million for the 2014-2020 budgetary period, plus more than €400 million from the EU Trust Fund for Africa, and senior officials in Brussels hope to use the EU’s financial weight as leverage to de-escalate the conflict. Poverty results in problems in sanitation, access to water and health services, malnutrition, and land tenure which are detrimental to the majority of the population. Ethiopia is particularly vulnerable to the effects of zoonotic diseases, especially anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies. Ethiopian refugees who fled the Tigray conflict wait to fill their jerrycans with water at Um Raquba reception camp in Sudan on Dec. 3, 2020. An adequate response necessitates efforts at reconciliation, justice, and inclusive dialogue. According to the New Poverty Index, about 90% of the … ADDIS ABEBA – The Ethiopian government has issued on Thursday arrest warrants on 64 top officials of Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF). Reconciling the electoral process with efforts for reconciliation and national dialogue is now even more imperative. The incumbent, the opposition, legal scholars and political scientists took center stage. Is the Nobel Peace Prize Brand Damage Reversible? Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linkedin. Ambassador to Ethiopia Michael Raynor told journalists on November 19 that “another aspect of this is the Ethiopian government continues to articulate a vision of the military conflict coming to an end fairly soon, a week or two from now.”. Ethiopia: Major battle looms as PM Abiy issues ultimatum to Tigray. Ethiopia's water and sanitation crisis 33 million Ethiopians lack access to an improved water source and 89 million lack access to improved sanitation. Oromo youth chant slogans during a protest in-front of Jawar Mohammed's house, an Oromo activist and leader of the Oromo protest in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 24, 2019. While wider questions of reconciliation, reform, and elections cannot be the first point on the agenda in any eventual negotiations between the federal government and the TPLF, discussing them cannot be indefinitely avoided, either. November 15, 2020. Wale Odunsi. Moreover, the federal government must soon confront an even bigger problem in 2021: how to conduct peaceful and credible elections. Ethiopian PM issues 72-hour deadline for Tigrayan forces to surrender. Meanwhile, Ethiopia has the second largest poor population in Africa and it is the second poorest country in the world according to the New UNDP Human Development Multidimensional Poverty Index. SHARES. Therefore, as focused on their immediate objectives and consequently as reluctant to seek dialogue and compromise as they may be, the parties in conflict may find that a negotiated settlement may ultimately be the only realistic choice, if not imminently, then in the months ahead. Only once these processes [of constitutional and electoral reform] are completed should an electoral timeline be consulted and announced, and preparations begin in earnest.”. mode: 'thumbnails-rr', Only once these processes [of constitutional and electoral reform] are completed should an electoral timeline be consulted and announced, and preparations begin in earnest.”. placement: 'Right Rail Thumbnails', The Ethiopian Civil War is A Symptom of US Foreign Policy Dysfunction, Somaliland Opposition Leader Calls for Ceasefire in Ethiopia. The second, more profound problem in conducting elections concerns broader needs for security, trust, reconciliation, and the ability of Ethiopians to freely engage in open political discourse, debate, and campaigning. Further, the TPLF’s historic capacity to wage guerrilla warfare from the rural mountains of Tigray may not be definitively eroded by its losses in conventional warfare. It is unclear what a successful strategy for the federal government will be if it is able to capture Tigray’s urban centers but cannot command the widespread acceptance of Tigray’s people. The reform process has been largely elite-driven and concentrated in Addis Ababa, and there is a lack of clarity on a specific road map to achieving the goals set out by the prime minister.” While there has been some important progress since that assessment was made, conducting elections in Ethiopia will be the largest democratic exercise in the country’s history; the technical challenges should not be underestimated and cannot easily be expedited. JUST WATCHED Why are there fears of civil war in Ethiopia? The second, more profound problem in conducting elections concerns broader needs for security, trust, reconciliation, and the ability of Ethiopians to freely engage in open political discourse, debate, and campaigning. While the fighting of the last few weeks may have significantly degraded the TPLF’s military capacity, it is unlikely that the federal government can entirely subdue the TPLF as a political entity, which retains the support of a substantial number of Tigrayans. For the federal government, taking control of the state capital of Tigray, and its largest city, Mekelle, is now the principal remaining tactical military objective. War sometimes starts like clockwork but predicting the date on which a conflict will end often leads to disappointment. By Schams Elwazer. Additionally, Ethiopia is prone to climate-related shocks and disease outbreaks. 28 November 2020. While in February 2020, the National Election Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) announced that elections would be held in August 2020, by the end of March, the Board had decided to indefinitely delay the elections because of the COVID-19 pandemic. In a recent tragic incident, the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission reported that at least 34 people were killed in a November 14 attack on a bus in Benishangul. Therefore, Ethiopia uses a “one health” approach to its GHSA activities by bringing together human and animal health partners, recognizing that the health of people is connected to the health of animals and the environment. The challenges faced in administering elections are significant. Susan Stigant, director of Africa Programs at the U.S. Institute of Peace, testified on December 3, 2020 at the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organization's hearing on “The Unfolding Conflict in Ethiopia.” Her expert testimony as prepared is presented below. Yet from the start of armed hostilities with the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed promised the conflict would be swift and decisive. Desert Locust situation update 3 December 2020 Intense swarm invasion of Kenya likely from mid-December onwards Substantial breeding and large numbers of hopper bands continue to develop within a vast area of eastern Ethiopia and central Somalia where ground and aerial control operations are in progress. Ethiopia is blessed with abundance of natural resources such as gold, Potash, unexploited natural gas or Methane, copper and platinum. National elections are overdue and are now expected to be held next year. Violent conflict between the federal government of Ethiopia and the federal state of Tigray, in the country’s north, began November 4 and quickly escalated. The Prospects and Difficulties of Elections. Achieving the federal government’s security objectives in Tigray is unlikely to resolve both new and entrenched political challenges, and already delayed national elections, now … More importantly, discussions on such issues must include many more political and civil actors beyond those now in conflict if at least a degree of national consensus is to be achieved. By: In May, Amnesty International reported that at least 10,000 people had been “arbitrarily arrested and detained last year as part of the government’s crackdown on armed attacks and violence in Oromia Region,” and in July, that another 5,000 had been arrested following protests the previous month. War sometimes starts like clockwork but predicting the date on which a conflict will end often leads to disappointment. vitag.videoDiscoverConfig = { random: true, noFixedVideo: true }; (vitag.Init = window.vitag.Init || []).push(function(){viAPItag.initInstreamBanner("vi_31698886")}); (vitag.Init = window.vitag.Init || []).push(function(){viAPItag.display("vi_31698887")}). Visit This week, our Susan Stigant looks at what new challenges have emerged in the Horn of Africa since the outbreak began. Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) and CDC lab experts conducting a COVID-19 lab test at the EPHI Reference lab. Even before the conflict with Tigray, there were more than 1.8 million internally displaced persons in Ethiopia. As violence continues over control of the northern Ethiopian region of Tigray, Ethiopia’s future remains unsettled, even if the conflict ends soon. Industry, mainly construction, and services accounted for most of the growth. More recently, NEBE has noted that the possibility of constitutional and electoral reform could also complicate the electoral calendar and has warned, “Preparations for electoral process based on [an] unstable timeline are not advisable. National elections are overdue and are now expected to be held next year. On November 6, Abiy wrote that “operations by federal defense forces underway in Northern Ethiopia have clear, limited and achievable objectives.” On November 9, the prime minister said the military operation “will wrap up soon,” and the next day, that “our law enforcement operations in Tigray are proceeding as planned: operations will cease as soon as the criminal junta is disarmed, legitimate administration in the region restored, and fugitives apprehended and brought to justice—all of them rapidly coming within reach.” Claims that the conflict will be short-lived have also been echoed by senior American officials: U.S. Press Abiy’s new political vehicle, the Ethiopian Prosperity Party, is the national frontrunner, constructed from the former Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front ruling coalition, which was once led by the TPLF. As violence continues over control of the northern Ethiopian region of Tigray, Ethiopia’s future remains unsettled, even if the conflict ends soon. The first problem is one of election administration, operations and reform: a rush to organize elections in early 2021, as some have suggested, may easily worsen the political situation across the country, as in such a limited time, elections are unlikely to be effectively administered. Ethiopian PM issues 72-hour deadline for Tigrayan forces to … Ethiopia: Running On Fumes - Ethiopian Tourism in 2020. Projects Ethiopia’s Problems Will Not End with a Military Victory. It was the Tigray region’s decision to proceed with organizing its own elections in September, in defiance of the federal government and without the oversight and participation of the NEBE, that contributed to a deterioration of relations between Tigray and Addis Ababa, and which was a further step toward the violence now occurring. Seemingly both regional governments, federal governments, and large swaths of the people galvanizing around the [federal] government.”. But his tough actions have unleashed a torrent of problems. While some in the federal government have indicated that they would accept a refashioned TPLF led by moderates, external efforts to re-engineer the party may well be counterproductive and only risk further alienating some Tigrayan constituencies. December 6, 2020. While in February 2020, the National Election Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) announced that elections would be held in August 2020, by the end of March, the Board had decided to indefinitely delay the elections because of the COVID-19 pandemic. _taboola.push({ Abiy’s new political vehicle, the Ethiopian Prosperity Party, is the national frontrunner, constructed from the former Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front ruling coalition, which was once led by the TPLF. Of those who lack access to improved sanitation, a staggering 23 million practice open defecation. Even without the impact of COVID-19 and the situation in Tigray, Ethiopia’s next national elections are fraught with difficulty. / Unfortunately, violence has continued elsewhere in Ethiopia. The reform process has been largely elite-driven and concentrated in Addis Ababa, and there is a lack of clarity on a specific road map to achieving the goals set out by the prime minister.” While there has been some important progress since that assessment was made, conducting elections in Ethiopia will be the largest democratic exercise in the country’s history; the technical challenges should not be underestimated and cannot easily be expedited. The challenges faced in administering elections are significant. Ambassador to Ethiopia Michael Raynor told journalists on November 19 that “another aspect of this is the Ethiopian government continues to articulate a vision of the military conflict coming to an end fairly soon, a week or two from now.”. Analysis and Commentary. As NEBE explained, several important preparatory tasks were unable to be completed in March, meaning that the crucial voter registration exercise, which was expected to register tens of millions of prospective voters, was unable to commence in April. The nationwide protests by the Oromo people, the single largest ethnic group in both Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa, is a clear example of the atmosphere this systematic marginalization and failed government policies have created in … Beyond the national polls, each regional state of Ethiopia is also due to hold elections for their state legislatures. Squaring the electoral preparations and timetable with a plan for reconciliation and national dialogue may thus be imperative for a peaceful future in Ethiopia. Posted on December 2, 2020 December 2, 2020. Substantial efforts are needed to reduce political tensions ahead of elections in 2021. Achieving the federal government’s security objectives in Tigray is unlikely to resolve both new and entrenched political challenges, and already delayed national elections, now expected in 2021, may prove a severe test of Ethiopia’s political order, and consequently affect broader regional stability. Further, as the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs pointed out on November 20, “Humanitarian partners in Ethiopia are further concerned about the increasing report of violence in Oromia and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions. Achieving the federal government’s security objectives in Tigray is unlikely to resolve both new and entrenched political challenges, and already delayed national elections, now expected in 2021, may prove a severe test of Ethiopia’s political order, and consequently affect broader regional stability. Of Tigray moreover, the Ethiopian state had bearing on the children of Ethiopia is also due to hold for. In addis ABABA launchedR ; Context and Updates on current issues in Ethiopia: `` is! Unite Ethiopians terms of population country ’ s conflict: a war Won to the... This week, our Susan Stigant looks at what new challenges have emerged in the Horn of since! Prisons Research Ethiopia has gained the upper hand in confronting an uprising in the Horn of Africa the... Elections in 2021: how to conduct peaceful and credible elections Ethiopians abandoned and abused in Saudi prisons Research.. 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