luxembourg official languages german
Three official languages in Luxembourg. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zollverein). Luxembourgish’s limited written use is also noticeable in the media. (Also called Lëtzebuergesch), it is the national, administrative and judicial language of Luxembourg since its establishment by the "Languages Law" in 1984 (The official portal of the Grand Duchy of luxembourg, 2015).Simply, it is a blend of Dutch, old German, and French elements. Still, throughout its turbulent history, Luxembourg frequently changed between German and French rule, fell into the hands of the Netherlands, and was divided into parts. Luxembourg has three official languages: French, German and Luxemburgish. - Legilux", "Home | John E. Dolibois European Center | Miami University", "World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe", "Overview of the Healthcare System in Luxembourg", "Luxembourg and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture 2007", "Environmental Report for Expo 2010 Shanghai China", "Luxembourg pavilion at the World Expo 2010 Shanghai", "Luxembourg pavilion displays green heart of Europe", "World/Global Alcohol/Drink Consumption 2009", "Consommation annuelle moyenne d'alcool par habitant, Catholic Ministry of Health", "Luxembourgish Film Production Companies", The Official Portal of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Orders, decorations, and medals of Luxembourg, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Luxembourg&oldid=992990835, French-speaking countries and territories, German-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, States and territories established in 1815, Articles containing Luxembourgish-language text, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with German-language sources (de), CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Officially the Republic of China, participates as ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 05:34. In the 2nd grade, they then learn French. How Do 3 Official Languages Work In Practice? Location on the EU map. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.. Executive power is exercised by the grand duke and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers. The Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. The summers are warm and winters cool. The arena is used for basketball, handball, gymnastics, and volleyball, including the final of the 2007 Women's European Volleyball Championship. As previously mentioned, most Luxembourgers’ native language is Luxembourgish, so this is what they speak in their daily lives. Luxembourg's neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, and in 1949 it became a founding member of NATO. After the Luxembourg Crisis of 1866 nearly led to war between Prussia and France, the Grand Duchy's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, Prussia's troops were withdrawn from the Fortress of Luxembourg, and its Bock and surrounding fortifications were dismantled. At work, in the public sphere and as part of collective activities, however, it all depends on the context. It only achieved total independence in 1890, but was re-occupied and annexed by Germany during the World Wars. But on further examination, it gets a little more tricky, as there’s no agreement on whether Luxembourgish should even be considered a separate language. The three most spoken and official languages in Luxembourg are Luxembourgish, French and German. If you know Standard German, then it’s pretty easy to recognize their corresponding form in Standard German. The newspaper with the largest circulation is the German-language daily Luxemburger Wort. With $171 billion in May 2015, the country ranks eleventh in the world in holdings of U.S. Treasury securities. Services, especially banking and finance, account for the majority of the economic output. Interestingly, there are compound words in Luxembourgish which are made up of one French word and one German word. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the highest judicial authority in the EU.  The army is under civilian control, with the grand duke as Commander-in-Chief.  In contrast to the First World War, under the German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, the country was treated as German territory and informally annexed to the adjacent province of the Third Reich. The past two decades have highlighted the growing importance of English in several sectors, in particular the financial sector. The Red Lands, in the far south and southwest, are Luxembourg's industrial heartland and home to many of Luxembourg's largest towns. According to a 2005 Eurobarometer poll, 44% of Luxembourg citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 28% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 22% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force". The National Museum of Military History (MNHM) in Diekirch is especially known for its representations of the Battle of the Bulge. Katrin (Kat) Sperling was born and raised in Potsdam, Germany and moved to Toronto, Canada after high school. The average Luxembourg resident uses two or three languages on a daily basis: in a 2013 study, 70 percent reported using Luxembourgish at home, at school or work, while 55 percent used French and 30 percent spoke German.Debates in parliament are carried out mainly in Luxembourgish — including the current debate on expanding its use — while official documents are drawn up in French. The “Languages of Luxembourg” project is a web-based language learning tool that allows language learners to simultaneously study/learn either 5 or 7 languages (Luxembourgish, French, German, Portuguese ... and “Languages of Luxembourg 7” (LL7), via the official Google and Apple mobile applications stores.  Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. Unlike most countries in Europe, sport in Luxembourg is not concentrated upon a particular national sport, but encompasses a number of sports, both team and individual. Luxembourg was represented at the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China, from 1 May to 31 October 2010 with its own pavilion. meaning “dish”) and a football field is a. We examine language in this small country. To the east, Luxembourg borders the German Bundesländer of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, and to the south, it borders the French région of Grand Est (Lorraine).  This enables Luxembourg to interconnect with all major telecommunication operators and data carriers worldwide. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. We explain what they are, where they’re spoken and, most importantly, when to speak them. Annually, over 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from the EU states, as well as Eastern Europe. News Luxembourg broaches dropping French and German as official languages. Most people know that Luxembourg is a tax haven, it’s the “LUX” in BENELUX, it’s the birthplace of EU President Jean-Claude Juncker, and it’s a small country — but that’s about it. However, it’s not possible to definitively answer the question of whether Luxembourgish is a separate language, because there aren’t any agreed-upon linguistic criteria to distinguish between a dialect and a language. The army is situated on the Härebierg which is Luxembourgish for army mountain. This stems from the fact that Luxembourgish has not been a. for very long: The first proposal for how Luxembourgish should be written was only introduced in 1946, but was not well-received. Majority of Luxembourg’s population speak Luxembourgish, which is considered the national language of the country. Where does it explain this in Wikipedia? Luxembourg City, together with Brussels and Strasbourg, is one of the three official seats of the European institutions. Children are therefore taught first in Luxembourgish and are then introduced to German.  In 2011, Luxembourg had an NGA coverage of 75%. But on further examination, it gets a little more tricky, as there’s no agreement on whether Luxembourgish should even be considered a separate language. Luxembourg is known in Europe for its radio and television stations (Radio Luxembourg and RTL Group). , Luxembourg has been overshadowed by the culture of its neighbours. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. The linguistic situation in Luxembourg is characterized by the practice and the recognition of three official languages: French, German, and the national language Luxembourgish, established in law in 1984.These three languages are also referred to as the three administrative languages. The Grand Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. As previously mentioned, most Luxembourgers’ native language is Luxembourgish, so this is what they speak in their daily lives. This stems from the fact that Luxembourgish has not been a written language for very long: The first proposal for how Luxembourgish should be written was only introduced in 1946, but was not well-received. 5–8. The major languages spoken in Luxembourg include Luxembourgish, French, and German. It’s the most-used language in TV and radio, but the statistics for print media paint a different picture: 65% of all articles are published in German, 25% in French and only 10% in Luxembourgish. The Dutch king became, in personal union, the grand duke. , Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux. It has kept much of the German grammar and syntax and a lot of its words can be traced back to either German or French. The parliamentary debates are however mostly conducted in Luxembourgish, whereas the written government communications and the official documents (e.g. Although professional life is largely multilingual, French is described by private sector business leaders as the main working language of their companies (56%), followed by Luxembourgish (20%), English (18%), and German (6%). A second body, the Council of State (Conseil d'État), composed of twenty-one ordinary citizens appointed by the grand duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation..  In 2013, there were 537,039 permanent residents, 44.5% of which were of foreign background or foreign nationals; the largest foreign ethnic groups were the Portuguese, comprising 16.4% of the total population, followed by the French (6.6%), Italians (3.4%), Belgians (3.3%) and Germans (2.3%).  The Constitution of Luxembourg, the supreme law of Luxembourg, was adopted on 17 October 1868.  The pavilion was based on the transliteration of the word Luxembourg into Chinese, "Lu Sen Bao", which means "Forest and Fortress". Luxembourg, the only Grand Duchy in the world, is a landlocked country in northwestern Europe surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. , The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, "little castle", and the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. ", "MAE – Luxembourg City in the top 10 of the most "livable" cities / News / New York CG / Mini-Sites", "LUX MUST "REDOUBLE ITS EFFORTS" TO MEET CLIMATE TARGETS: OECD", World Economic Outlook Database-April 2012, "Luxembourg makes progress in OECD standards on tax information exchange", "A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD Global Forum", "Kim Jong-il $4bn emergency fund in European banks", "How one word change lets Amazon pays less tax on its UK activities", "Embargo 4 October 0.01 AM Central European Times", "Luxembourg tax files: how tiny state rubber-stamped tax avoidance on an industrial scale", "Major foreign holders of treasury securities", "What are the problems of geographic attribution for securities holdings and transactions in the TIC system? The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in Brussels and sometimes in Strasbourg. People speak many languages in Luxembourg, but do you know which ones? However, it’s rare that they write in Luxembourgish. Due to this history, Luxembourg’s official languages were initially Standard German and French. One of the world’s smallest countries, it is bordered by Belgium on the west and north, France on the south, and Germany on the northeast and east. Most native Luxembourg dishes, consumed as the traditional daily fare, share roots in the country's folk dishes the same as in neighboring Germany. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. Still, Luxembourgish has not achieved much status as a language of literature or science. Luxemburg wants to increase fivefold its organic farming. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it similarly to a Dutch province. The professional head of the army is the Chief of Defence, who answers to the minister and holds the rank of general. Competition between the different operators is guaranteed by the legislative framework Paquet Telecom of the Government of 2011 which transposes the European Telecom Directives into Luxembourgish law. In 1999 Luxembourg joined the Eurozone. Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF Ad-free videos. Luxembourgish is the national language of the Grand Duchy and is considered the mother tongue or "language of the heart" for the local population, being the language that Luxembourgers generally use to speak to each other. It lies between latitudes 49° and 51° N, and longitudes 5° and 7° E.. It won the competition a total of five times, 1961, 1965, 1972, 1973 and 1983 and hosted the contest in 1962, 1966, 1973, and 1984, but only eight of its 38 entries were performed by Luxembourgish artists. Luxembourgish as a subject only remains part of the curriculum until 7th grade. This seems simple at first: Germans speak German, the French speak French, so, therefore, Luxembourgers speak Luxembourgish. Retrieved on 25 January 2013", "Household Download Index. , With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. We’ve discussed Luxembourgish already — but we’ve yet to look at what makes Luxembourgish distinct. A highly strategic position in the heart of Europe", "Telx Partners with German Hub Provider ancotel to Provide Virtual Connections between U.S. and Europe", "Globale Rechenzentren | Colocation mit niedrigen Latenzen für Finanzunternehmen, CDNs, Enterprises & Cloud-Netzwerke bei Equinix", "Ancotel – Telecommunication Operator References", "Networks Accessible in Frankfurt via the VMMR Solution offered by Telx/ancotel", "Luxembourg's politicians pin economic hopes on fintech drive", "Luxembourg as a Centre for Online and ICT Business (pdf)", "Invest, Innovate, Export | Luxembourg as a smart location for business", "LuxConnect ICT campus Bettembourg DC 1.1", "LuxConnect ICT campus Bissen/Roost DC 2", "New data center study: Luxembourg in pole position", "Soluxions magazine: Luxembourg en pole position", "International migrant stock: The 2017 revision", "Luxembourg Presidency – Being a Luxembourger", "Population par sexe et par nationalité (x 1 000) 1981, 1991, 2001–2013", "La progression de la population du Grand-Duché continue: 537 039 résidants au 1er janvier 2013. , Since 1980 it has been illegal for the government to collect statistics on religious beliefs or practices.  The largest sports venue in the country is d'Coque, an indoor arena and Olympic swimming pool in Kirchberg, north-eastern Luxembourg City, which has a capacity of 8,300.  Every citizen or resident has the right to address the administration in the language of their choice among the three official languages and to be answered in that language. EU law and other legislative texts are published in all official languages, except Irish, for resource-related reasons (only regulations adopted by both the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament are currently translated into Irish).  Luxembourg is ranked 13th in The Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom, 26th in the United Nations Human Development Index, and 4th in the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life index.. , The University of Luxembourg is the only university based in Luxembourg. German tends to be the second language and widely used in local schools French is the official written language of the country and is spoken by the many French and Belgian cross-border workers Portuguese is also widely spoken as they are the largest minority group in Luxembourg  Luxembourg's education system is trilingual: the first years of primary school are in Luxembourgish, before changing to German; while in secondary school, the language of instruction changes to French. The Moselle valley is the lowest-lying region, running along the southeastern border. It’s not distinguished enough from the other West Central German dialects to be considered a separate language.  Two American universities maintain satellite campuses in the country, Miami University (Dolibois European Center) and Sacred Heart University (Luxembourg Campus). If you’ve little patience for etymology then keep scrolling down to our short Luxembourgish dictionary and you’ll quickly see how similar German and Luxembourgish are. Many elementary words like Merci (Thank you) or Pardon (Excuse me) have made their way from French into Luxembourgish. For people living in Luxembourg permanently, learning the local language isn’t an option but a necessity. They live in Germany, in Austria, in Switzerland … and, of course, also in Luxembourg. Moreover, the Luxembourg government has aimed to attract Internet start-ups, with Skype and Amazon being two of the many Internet companies that have shifted their regional headquarters to Luxembourg.  However, the large proportion of alcohol purchased by customers from neighboring countries contributes to the statistically high level of alcohol sales per capita; this level of alcohol sales is thus not representative of the actual alcohol consumption of the Luxembourg population.. Needless to say, this leads to a few challenges when it comes to education. It is dominated by hills and low mountains, including the Kneiff near Wilwerdange, which is the highest point, at 560 metres (1,837 ft).  The immigrant population increased in the 20th century due to the arrival of immigrants from Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, and Portugal, with the majority coming from the latter: in 2013 there were about 88,000 inhabitants with Portuguese nationality. There are several notable museums, located mostly in the capital. All three are established as official administrative languages of the country, although Luxembourgish is the national language. The valleys of the mid-Sauer and Attert form the border between the Gutland and the Oesling. The border between Luxembourg and Germany is formed by three rivers: the Moselle, the Sauer, and the Our. In April 2009, concern about Luxembourg's banking secrecy laws, as well as its reputation as a tax haven, led to its being added to a "grey list" of nations with questionable banking arrangements by the G20. For one, most school books are printed in German, but most Luxembourgish children don’t understand Standard German when they start school. It’s not distinguished enough from the other West Central, However, it’s not possible to definitively answer the question of whether Luxembourgish is a separate language, because there aren’t any agreed-upon linguistic criteria to distinguish between a. Nearly half of Luxembourg’s 576,000 inhabitants are foreigners, many of whom find it easier to speak one of the country’s other official languages, French and German, or even English. Due to the historical influence of the Napoleonic Code on the legal system of the Grand Duchy, French is also the sole language of the legislation and generally the preferred language of the government, administration and justice. The city of Luxembourg itself is on the UNESCO World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.. It was only in 1984 that Luxembourgish became the national language.  But in 1871, as a result of Germany's victory over France, Luxembourg's boundary with Lorraine, containing Metz and Thionville, changed from being a frontier with a part of France to a frontier with territory annexed to the German Empire as Alsace-Lorraine under the Treaty of Frankfurt. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (then restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.. For the city, see, • Independence in personal Union with the Netherlands (, Interactive map showing the border of Luxembourg. Why Wouldn’t Luxembourgish Be Considered A Language? Artwork © Clover Robin, courtesy of The Bright Agency.  Amazon.co.uk also benefits from Luxembourg tax loopholes by channeling substantial UK revenues as reported by The Guardian in April 2012. It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village of Schengen where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of the Court of Justice of the European Union, the highest judicial authority in the EU. It also lacks an air force, though the 17 NATO AWACS aeroplanes are, for convenience, registered as aircraft of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita. Luxembourg is divided into 12 cantons, which are further divided into 102 communes.  In accordance with a joint agreement with Belgium, both countries have put forth funding for one A400M military cargo plane. There are around 100 million people who speak German. The city of Luxembourg, which is the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. The three official language of Luxembourg are French, German and Luxembourgish: a Franconian language specific to the local population which is partially mutually intelligible with the neighboring High German, but which also includes more than 5,000 words of French origin. There were an estimated 5,000 illegal immigrants in Luxembourg in 1999.. 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